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Thread: Jeep History

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    Jeep History

    This is by no means a complete history. Just a guide to identify Jeeps. I probably left out some information so, just post up a correction. Thanks.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

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    1940 Bantam Pilot


    Using the term that has become generic in the English language, this is the undisputed first "jeep." Built by the American Bantam Car Company of Butler, Pennsylvania, it was delivered to Camp Holabird, Maryland, on September 23, 1940. The first vehicle of a 70-vehicle contract, "Old Number One" was tested thoroughly and then spent the rest of its short life as a demo vehicle. It was wrecked in a traffic accident early in 1941, sent back to Butler and disassembled. The mechanical pieces were probably incorporated into the Bantam Mark II's that were then in production. Legend has it that the unusable body sections were buried along with a pile of scrap on the Bantam grounds.

    Specifications:
    Engine Continental Motor Co. BY4112 4 cyl 112cid 45bhp @ 3,500 rpm
    Torque 86 lbs-ft @ 1800 rpm
    Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
    Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed
    Gear Shift Floor mounted
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Weight 1,840 lbs,



    1940 Bantam BRC 60


    The Bantam BRC-60 (or Mark II) was the first revision of the Bantam pilot model. These hand-built models were part of the first 1/4-ton contract for 70 vehicles (1 pilot model + 69 additional after acceptance of the pilot model, to be distributed as follows: 40 for the Infantry, 20 for the Cavalry and 10 for the Field Artillery.). The successful tests of the Bantam pilot model revealed some weaknesses, and improvements including the more military looking, squared-off front fenders were incorporated into the additional 69 BRC-60 (Bantam Reconnaisance Car) vehicles. Only one is known to still exist, in the U.S. Army Transportation Museum at Fort Eustis, Virginia



    Specifications:
    Engine Continental Motor Co. BY4112 4 cyl 112cid 45bhp @ 3,500 rpm
    Torque 86 lbs-ft @ 1800 rpm
    Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
    Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed
    Gear Shift Floor mounted
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Weight 1,940 lbs
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

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    1940 Willys Quad


    Willys built five Quads, according to company records, and delivered two (one with four-wheel steering) for the Army's contract competition in 1940. Its 60hp "Go-Devil" engine blew the doors off Bantam and Ford (the other two competitors) and won the contract. The Quad, however, was a heavyweight and had to go on a big-time diet to meet the Army's requirements; when re-weighed, it was ounces inside the 2,160 pound limit. The Quads have all since disappeared, but one lasted long enough to be photographed in the early 1950's. If Bantam Number One marked the beginning of the Jeep era, the Quad marked the beginning of Willys' dominance of the series.



    Specifications:
    Engine 134ci 4 cal L-head side valve "Go Devil"
    Horsepower 60bhp @ 4000rpm (Other sources say 62-65 bhp)
    Torque 105 pound-feet @ 2000 rpm
    Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
    Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed (same as Bantam)
    Gear Shift Mounted on steering column
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Weight 2,423 lbs. (Other sources say 2,418 to 2,520 lbs.)



    1940 Ford Pygmy


    The Pygmy was one of two vehicles built by Ford for the Army contract race in 1940, and it was accepted for testing alongside the Bantam and Willys units. The Pygmy's overall layout, including the squared-off hood, headlights on the grille, and dog-legged windshield pivots, was highly praised and became the pattern for the later Willys MB. But like the Bantam, the Pygmy fell victom to the Quad's more powerful engine. The vehicle shown, owned by the Alabama Center for Military History, is the actual Pygmy that was tested at Holabird in 1940. Of the vehicles involved in the fierce, three-way competition that marked the opening chapter of the Jeep legend, only the Pygmy and the Budd-bodied Ford prototype still survive



    Specifications:
    Engine 119.5 CID, 4 cyl, side valve 46 bhp @ 3,600rpm (Fordson Model N tractor engine)
    Torque 84 lbs-ft @ 1,500 rpm
    Transmission 3 speed Model A
    Transfer case Spicer 2 speed (same as Bantam)
    Gear Shift Floor mounted
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Weight 2,150 lbs.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

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    1940 Budd Ford


    This Ford prototype had a body built by the Budd Corporation, which stayed closer in design to the Bantam pilot model, while the Ford engineers created a new design for the Pygmy. Perhaps Ford wanted this vehicle as a fall-back if the Army rejected its new design. At any rate, the Pygmy was indeed accepted for the tests at Camp Holabird, and the only significant action seen by the Budd-bodied prototype was in parades and war bond rallies. Shortly after the war, it disappeared until found in the California desert by Jeff Polidoro in 1998. It joins the Pygmy as one of the only two surviving 1940 pilot models, and will no doubt emerge from under its coat of yellow paint


    1941 Ford GP


    A direct descendant of the Pygmy, the Ford GP was an updated model produced under an initial contract for 1,500 vehicles each from Ford, Willys and Bantam. As Lend-Lease requirements increased and the Willys design was finalized for mass production, more GP's were ordered and Ford ended up building 4,456 units, most of which went to Lend-Lease. Contrary to popular belief, the GP did not stand for "General Purpose." GP was a Ford engineering term, "G" for a government contract vehicle and "P" for 80-inch-wheelbase Reconaissance Car.



    Specifications:
    Engine 119.5 CID, 4 cal, side valve 46 bhp @ 3,600rpm (Fordson Model N tractor engine)
    Torque 84 lbs-ft @ 1,500 rpm
    Transmission 3 speed Model A
    Transfer case Spicer 2 speed (same as Bantam)
    Gear Shift Floor mounted
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Weight 2,160 lbs.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

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    1941 Willys MA


    Willys knew that the Army would want an improved model and started development of the MA even as the Quad was being tested. In the three-way deal, 1,500 MA's were ordered. The MA was definitley an evolutionary vehicle. Very much different than the later MB, the MA featured a column shift and a host of other detail changes that put it between the Quad and the MB. The basic drivetrain was still the Warner Gear and Spicer components of the Quad, Ford and Bantam. The MA is the least common of the pre-production Willys, with only about 30 examples known to exist of the 1,553 originally built; most were sent to Russia under Lend-Lease.



    Specifications:
    Engine 134ci 4 cal L-head side valve "Go Devil"
    Horsepower 60bhp @ 4000rpm (Other sources say 62-65 bhp)
    Torque 105 pound-feet @ 2000 rpm
    Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
    Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed (same as Bantam)
    Gear Shift Steering column mount
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front (same as Bantam)
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Weight 2,450 lbs.



    1941 Bantam BRC 40


    The BRC-40 was the final evolution of the Bantam design. The Army initially contracted for 1,500 units, but 2,605 were eventually assembled. Bantam ceased motor vehicle production after the last was built in December of 1941 and carried on building trailers, torpedo motors and landing gear. The BRC-40 had many fine features and was well liked by the Allied forces that used it; its light weight and nimble handling were particularly noteworthy. At least 100 BRC-40's have survived the years, making them the second most common of the pre-production 1/4-tons.

    Specifications:
    Engine Continental Motor Co. BY4112 4 cal 112cid 45bhp @ 3,500 rpm
    Torque 83 pound-feet
    Transmission 3 speed synchromesh Warner Gear T84
    Transfer case Spicer Dana 18 two speed
    Gear Shift Floor mounted
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
    Wheelbase 79 inches
    Weight 2,070 lbs
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

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    1942 Willys MB and Ford GPW



    By July 1941, the War Department desired to standardize and decided to select a single manufacturer to supply them with the next order for another 16,000 vehicles. Willys won the contract mostly due to its more powerful engine (the "Go Devil") which soldiers raved about, and its lower cost and silhouette. Whatever better design features the Bantam and Ford entries had were then incorporated into the Willys car, moving it from an "A" designation to "B", thus the "MB" nomenclature. For example, if the gasoline tank was directly beneath the driver's seat, combining the two main target areas into one, it would lessen the chance of a catastrophic hit.

    By October 1941, it became apparent Willys-Overland could not keep up with production demand and Ford was contracted to produce them as well. The Ford car was then designated GPW, with the "W" referring to the "Willys" licensed design. During World War II, Willys produced 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000. Approximately 51,000 were exported to Russia under the Lend-Lease program.

    The first 25,808 Willys MBs used a welded steel grille very similar to the Ford GP design, and there were a host of other differences from the later Willys. These early MBs had "Willys" embossed in the back panel. In production, the slat-grilles were given running changes until they finally evolved into the standard stamped-grille MB we know and love.

    At the outset, all engines were produced by Willys but in 1942 Ford began to produce GPW engines to the Willys design. Midland Steel Corp. produced frames to the Willys specification and wre used by both Willys and Ford. Ford contracted with Murray Corp. for frames for the GPW after which Ford no longer used the Midland frames. During 1941 to 1943 Willys and Ford manufactured their own bodies, slightly different from each other. In early 1944, both Willys and Ford subcontracted their jeep bodies to American Central Body of Connersville, IN, who built the so-called "composite body" used by both manufacturers.

    After about 25,000 units were produced, in early 1942 the MB/GPW was standardized with changes agreed upon by Ford, Willys and the Army. The 1941 and early 1942 production jeeps have many small differences from the later, full production models. The most visible change was the Ford nine-slot stamped grill which replaced the Willys slat grill (similar to the Ford GP) in March-April 1942.

    Ford's River Rouge plant produced the first 77 GPWs with Willys engines and Midland frames in January 1942. Willys jeeps were produced in their Toledo, OH plant, while Ford had assembly operations at six plants around the country. Although small differences remained, the MB and GPW essentially met the Army's goal of being completely interchangeable in all parts. At the factories, there were Ford GPWs produced on Willys Midland frames or with Willys engines, plus other production expedients and subcontractor sharing, creating a mix of jeeps and parts to be sorted out by later generations.

    During the course of the war, Ford built 277,896 GPW jeeps, and Willys built 335,531 units. Production contracts were terminated in the summer of 1945 as World War II ended. The last Ford GPW was built on 30 July 1945 and the last Willys MB rolled off the Toledo assembly line on 20 August 1945.

    The Willys MB or Ford GPW jeep of World War II were externally visually the same but with many small differences in production details. The main component that distinguished a Willys-Overland MB from the Ford-built GPW is the tubular front frame cross-member on the MB as opposed to the inverted U-shaped cross-member on the GPW. A visible sign is that GPWs with Ford frames, unlike MBs or GPWs with Willys frames, had holes in the front bumper in line with the frame rails and also had holes in the rear cross member just out from the bumperettes.





    Specifications:

    Length 132.25 inches
    Width 62 inches
    Height, top up 69.75 inches
    Height, top down 52 inches
    Engine Willys or Ford 4 cyl L-head, 134.2 ci, 6.48:1 compression
    Horsepower (net) 54 @ 4,000 rpm
    Transmission Warner T-84J 3 speed synchromesh
    Transfer case Dana Spicer 18 2 speed
    Gear Shift Floor mounted
    Axles Spicer Dana 4.88:1 23-2 rear, Dana 25 front
    Electrical System 6v, neg ground
    Wheelbase 80 inches
    Ground Clearance 8.75 inches
    Approach Angle 45°
    Departure Angle 35°
    Weight w/o gas and water 2,337 lbs
    Fording Depth 21 inches max
    Tires 6.00x16 non-directional
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    1942-1943 Ford GPA



    As with the contract for the GPW, Ford received a contract to manufacture the amphibious GPA principally in recognition of the company's large production capacity. But development and testing was rushed, there were numerous delays in the production process, and the result was less maneuverable than the services had wanted. Still, 12,778 GPA's were built, with the squarish hull surrounding an interior similar to the GPW, and a power take-off for the propeller. Restored, seaworthy GPA's are still popular, particularly in Australia as well as the U.S


    1944 Willys MLW-2


    In late 1943, the U.S. Army contracted with Willys-Overland to build a 1/2-ton jeep providing greater payload and mobility over the swampy jungle terrain of the Southwest Pacific. The prototype MLW-1 (M meaning "government", LW meaning "long wheelbase") was apparently never completed, but photographs of the MLW-2 "Jungle Jeep" pilot model appear in Fred Coldwell's book Preproduction Civilian Jeeps. The wheelbase was 92 inches, and overall length was 142-7/16 inches. It used the same Go-Devil engine and T84J transmission as the production MB. The two MLW-2 pilot models had slightly different transfer cases, both with 2.43 low range. The body incorporated several features which would later appear in the Civilian Jeep program, including a tailgate, closed underseat toolboxes, and a side-mounted spare tire holder similar to the CJ-1. (There was a second spare tire location inside the body, behind the front seats.) The storage compartment behind the rear wheel was not included on any CJ.
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    1944 CJ1



    The civilian Jeep project began in 1944 when Willys-Overland had some resources to spare beyond war-oriented production. Blueprints had been drawn up by February 1944 and a pilot model, dubbed the CJ-1, was up and running by May. It wore a cast-bronze hood emblem that said "AGRIJEEP." It's clear the CJ-1 was an MB pulled off the line and modified with a tailgate, drawbar, civilian-type top, a spare tire mounted on the passenger side, and lower gearing in the axles and transfer case. According to Fred Coldwell's Preproduction Civilian Jeeps, the factory also tested one or more MB Agrijeeps that kept their standard MB military body but used the 2.43 low range transfer case and had 5.38 gears in their axles. No CJ-1 or MB Agrijeeps are known to survive.


    1944-1945 CJ2



    The body, chassis and much of the drivetrain of the CJ-2 were built especially for these units, even though many MB parts were also utilized, including the front grille. The CJ-2's, perhaps 45 in total, were built in two distinct series: pilot models and standardized preproduction models. All had tailgates, 5.38 gears, lower transfer case gearing and drawbars. The first two pilot models had T84 transmissions, but all the rest of the CJ-2's had the new T90 column shift. Many were equipped with PTO's, governors, and other equipment such as air compressors, post hole diggers or mowers. These rigs were used at various agricultural test stations around the country, and the name plates on the dash of the pilot models still carried the "Agrijeep" name coined for the CJ-1. The pilot models also had the spare tire mounted on the passenger side, forward of the rear wheel well, and some had brass "JEEP" plaques on the hood sides, windshield frame and rear panel. The preproduction series had "JEEP" stamped into the sheet metal, and the spare was moved behind the wheelwell.
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    1945-1949 CJ-2A





    The first of the production CJs (Civilian Jeeps), 214,202 CJ-2As were produced. The earliest versions used a column shift, until early 1946. The earliest units also used the MB's full-floating rear axle and had military tool notches in the body. Unlike the MBs, the CJs used a tailgate and had "Willys" embossed on the hood sides and windshield frame. The beefier T-90 gearbox replaced the old T-84. CJ-2A sales were very brisk, especially considering the almost endless supply of MBs on the war surplus market. A few CJ-2As were built concurrently with the later CJ-3A

    Production Information
    Year Starting s/n Ending s/n Units built
    1945 10001 11824 1824
    1946 11825 83379 71554
    1947 83380 148458 65078
    1948 148459 222581 74122
    1949 222582 224764 2182

    Specifications:
    http://www.thecj2apage.com/specs.html
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    1946-1965 Jeep Wagon



    [IMG]
    http://www.oldwoodies.com/img/truck/willyswagon.jpg[/IMG]

    The Willys Jeep Station Wagon is the first all-steel station wagon and is arguably the world's first sport utility vehicle (SUV). It was designed in 1946 by industrial designer Brooks Stevens and stayed in production until 1963. The steel body was efficient to mass-produce, as easy to maintain and safer than the real wood-bodied station wagon versions at the time. This was one of Willys most successful post-World War II models.

    The Willys Jeep Station Wagon was introduced in 1946 as just the 463 model, powered by the L-134 Go-Devil flathead four cylinder. The 663 model, powered by the L-148 Lightning straight six, was brought in for 1948. Four-wheel drive became an option in 1949.

    1950 saw a number of changes. The flat grille was replaced by a pointed v-shape design with five horizontal bars across the vertical ones. New engines were available, too. The 473 model got the new F-134 Hurricane, and the 673 model got a new 161 cu in (2.6 L) version of the Lightning six. Another big change this year was the addition of a sedan delivery model to the lineup.

    In 1952, the flathead Lightning was dropped in favor of the F-161 Hurricane, installed in the 685 model.

    The 1954 model year was the first under Kaiser's ownership. The 6-226 Super Hurricane, a flathead inline six, was introduced. This was a version of the Kaiser Supersonic/Continental Red Seal engine.

    A number of new models were added in 1955. The 6-226 model lineup gained stripped chassis, flat face cowl, cowl/windshield, and ambulance models. The 475 line received only the cowl/windshield.

    In 1958 a new Maverick model was introduced, a comparatively more luxurious version of the two-wheel drive wagon. It could be had with either the four or the six-cylinder engine.

    The 6-230 Tornado OHC engine was introduced in midyear 1962, replacing the flathead.

    Production ended in 1965, as the Willys model had been phased out by the Jeep Wagoneer. Over 300,000 wagons and its variants were built.

    Engines

    * 1946-50 L4-134 Go-Devil
    * 1948-50 L6-148 Lightning
    * 1950-65 F4-134 Hurricane
    * 1950-51 L6-161 Lightning
    * 1952-54 F6-161 Hurricane
    * 1954-62 L6-226 Super Hurricane
    * 1962-65 6-230 Tornado
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    1947-1965 Jeep Truck





    The Willys Pickup was similar to the Willys Jeep Wagon and the VJ-2 and VJ-3 Willys Jeepster. It was introduced in 1947, with model designations of 2T and 4T. These trucks were equipped with the 134 cubic inch "Go-Devil" engine and the three-speed Borg-Warner T-90 transmission from the CJ-2A. The truck received a facelift in 1950 and became the 473, with the new "Hurricane" four-cylinder engine as an option. This model introduced the v-shaped front end with five horizontal bars, as well as an updated gauge cluster. The steps on the side of the pickup box were deleted. After 1950, the two-wheel drive model was discontinued. In 1953, the model designation became 475 and the grille bars were reduced to three. A 226 cubic inch six-cylinder 6-226 model was introduced in 1954, and sales of 475 models dropped considerably. The 6-226 was dropped in 1962 in favor of the 6-230 Tornado OHC engine.

    Engines:

    * 1947-1950, 1956 - 134 CID (2.2 L) L4-134 Go-Devil I4
    * 1950-1965 - 134 CID (2.2 L) F4-134 Hurricane I4
    * 1954-1962 - 226 CID (3.7 L) 6-226 Super Hurricane I6
    * 1962-1965 - 230 CID (3.8 L) 6-230 Tornado I6

    It was available with only one transmission, the Borg-Warner T-90 three-speed manual. A Spicer 18 transfer case was used on 4WD models. The heavy duty Timken 51540 was an early rear axle option, otherwise the Dana 53 was standard. The front axle was a Dana 25. A 5.38:1 differential ratio was standard, and a 4.88:1 was optional.

    Over 200,000 of these trucks were manufactured
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    1949-1951 Jeepster "VJ"


    .

    Realizing a gap in their product line up, Willys developed the Jeepster to crossover from their "utilitarian" type truck vehicles, to the passenger automobile market. The car was originally only offered with rear-wheel drive, thus limiting its appeal with traditional Jeep customers. While its distinctive boxy styling (created by industrial designer Brooks Stevens) was a hit with critics, it did not catch on with the intended market segment. Sales were also limited by sparse advertising. In the end, 19,132 original VJ Jeepsters were produced (1948 - 10,326; 1949 - 2,960; 1950 - 5,836).

    The VJ Jeepster was powered by the 62 horsepower (46 kW) "Go Devil" engine, a 134 cu in (2.2 L) straight-4 also used in the CJ. A 3-speed manual transmission with optional overdrive was used, as were drum brakes all around. The vehicle's front end and single transverse leaf spring suspension, was from the Willys Station Wagon, as was the rear driveline. The flat-topped rear fenders were copied from the Jeep truck line, as were the pair of longitudinal rear leaf springs.

    Engines:

    * 1948-1950 - L134 Go Devil I4 — 134.1 CID (2,197 cc)
    * 1949-1950 - L148 Lightning I6 —148.5 CID (2,433 cc)
    * 1950 - F134 Hurricane I4 —134.2 CID (2,199 cc)
    * 1950 - L161 Lightning I6 —161 CID (2,638 cc)
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    1949-1953 CJ-3A



    Direct descendant of the CJ-2A, the Universal Jeep CJ-3A was launched in the Fall of 1948. For the casual observer the 3A differed from the 2A only by its new one-piece windshield. But there were subtler differences: where Willys-Overland had moved the driver seat further back on the 2A, perhaps to accommodate husky farmers as well as thin GI's, they did it again with the 3A.

    The windshield was simplified with the wipers at the bottom, and made taller for more headroom. And the suspension was beefed up a bit, perhaps in answer to calls from the agricultural community who by now had a wide array of implements to choose from, designed to be mounted on and operated by a Jeep CJ.


    From Willys brochure The lack of ads for the CJ-3A except in the farm journals, at the same time as W-O was lavishly advertising its trucks and station wagons in full-color ads in the mainstream press, would suggest the community to which the 3A was aimed. The dash-mounted info plates with their pictures of farm and industry side by side, also demonstrate the markets in which W-O was hoping for sales.

    This was the last of the "low-hood" flat-fendered CJs. Only a few changes, mostly visual, marked the CJ-3A from the 2A. The windshield is a one-piece design and has a vent just below it. In its four-year run, 131,843 CJ-3As were manufactured. The 3A got an axle upgrade from a Spicer 41-2 to a Spicer 44-2. A stripped "Farm Jeep" option was available for 1951-53 models; these featured a standard drawbar and PTO. In 1953, the CJ-3A was built alongside the "high-hood", F-head powered CJ-3B.

    The CJ-3A used the "Go Devil" L-Head 134 I4 engine. The transmission in the CJ-3A was the T-90 3 speed sending power through a Dana 18 transfer case. The front axle was the Dana 25, and either the Dana 41 or the Dana 44 rear axle.
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    1950 CJ-V35



    The CJ-V35, or "Truck V35/U" as it was referred to by the U.S. Navy, was perhaps the ultimate U.S. Marine Corps Jeep. It could be driven underwater, and was apparently intended to carry forward observers to direct naval gunfire during amphibious landings. It was based on a request from the Navy and Marines, whereas the MC (M-38) was from Army sources. Some parts developed for the V35 carried over into MC production. It was an adaptation of the CJ-3A, with 6-volt electrical system, plus 12-volt generator between the front seats to power a MX566A/MRC radio set carried in place of the rear seat. The gas tank and toolbox were modified to clear the generator. Other identifying details include the protruding sealed headlights, tow hooks on the front, bumperettes in the rear, and lifting rings front and rear. It had MB-style combat wheels, and a hood stamped with "Willys" but with the M38-style snorkel coutout. One thousand units were delivered by Willys between March and June 1950, just before the start of hostilities in Korea.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  20. #15
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    1950-1955 M38



    A direct knockoff of the CJ-3A, the M38 was upgraded for GI use by a stronger frame and suspension, a 24-volt electrical system, and a multitude of military accoutrements. These rigs saw combat in Korea, but production was low at 61,423 units from 1950-52. An export version was built from 1953 to 1955 for foreign military forces. The headlight guards, blackout lights, battery panel on the cowl and tool notches on the body (passenger side) are the way to ID them. Some were equipped with Ramsey winches.

    When compared to the World War II Willys MB / Ford GPW, the M38 is a little larger, with better seating for the driver and passenger, and uses larger tires (7:00x16). It shares a 24 volt waterproofed electrical system with other post-war M-series vehicles, requiring a second battery to boost the voltage. The L-head, 4 cyl. 60 hp. engine of the MB was improved with a gear drive camshaft and was mated to a T90 transmission and 5:38 axle gears.





    1950 X-98



    The Jeep bearing the experimental vehicle number X-98 had flat fenders, but with a grille and hood not unlike the eventual CJ-5 grille. It may have been the first F-head-powered Jeep utility, built in 1949 or 1950 under Willys Engineering Release 5607. It had civilian features such as a tailgate, side-mounted spare, and "WILLYS" stamped on the hood, but photos indicate that X-98 was also tested by the military, perhaps several times. Photos taken in 1950 show it labelled on the bumper as X-98, whereas test photos from 1951 show it as vehicle 205. It was even referred to as the CJ-4M, although that designation seems to be more correctly belong to the slightly later military prototype.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  21. #16
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    1953-1968 CJ-3B



    One limitation of the wartime jeeps, and the postwar civilian models CJ-2A and CJ-3A, was the limited horsepower of the 4-cylinder L-head "Go-Devil" engine. The new F-head "Hurricane" engine, which Willys began putting in its larger vehicles in 1949, had its intake valves in the head rather than the engine block, allowing them to be larger. The first Jeep big enough for the engine was the military M38A1 in 1951. (The M38A1 was also the debut of the new "round-fender" body design that would be used for most of the Jeeps of the next five decades.) The first civilian Universal Jeep with the Hurricane engine was the new "high-hood" CJ-3B



    The CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys was sold to Kaiser. It introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. The CJ-3B was produced until 1968 with a total of 155,494 produced, although the design was licensed to a number of international manufacturers, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi ceased production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design in 1998, but Mahindra continues to produce Jeeps today.

    http://www.film.queensu.ca/cJ3B/SerialNos.html

    http://www.film.queensu.ca/cJ3B/Video.html

    Specifications:
    * G.V.W. 3500 lbs. (1587.5 kg)
    * Curb weight: 2243 lbs (1017.4 kg) (2418 lbs. on M606).
    * Overall length: 129-29/32 in. (3.30 m)
    * Overall width: 68-7/8 in. (175 cm)
    * Overall height (top of windshield): 66-1/4 in. (169 cm.)
    * Tread front and rear: 48-7/16 in. (123 cm)
    * Wheelbase: 80 in. (203 cm.)
    * Front / Rear Overhang: 20.59 in. / 22.31 in.
    * Tailgate: 36 in. Wide x 19.25 in. High
    * Ground Clearance: 8 in. (20.3 cm)
    * Load Space: 32 in. x 52.315 in. x 14.125 in.

    * Engine: "Hurricane" F-head, 134 cu.in. (2.2 liter), 4 cylinders
    * Cooling system capacity 11 qt. (10.4 ltr.) (12 qt. with heater)
    * Electricity: Battery 50 Amp. Hour 12 volt, Generator 35 Amp.
    * Front axle: Dana/Spicer 25, 27 or 27A, Full-floating hypoid, Ratio: 4.27:1 (5.38:1 optional)
    * Rear axle: Dana/Spicer 44, Semi-floating hypoid, Ratio: 4.27:1 (5.38:1 optional)
    * Brakes: Hydraulic, 9 in. drum diameter x 1.75 in., 117.8 sq. in. braking area.
    * Clutch: 8.5 in. Auborn or Rockford single dry plate with torsional damping, 72 sq. in. area. (Optional Auborn single dry plate, 9.25 in. dia. )
    * Transfer case: Spicer 18, 2 speeds, 1.00:1 and 2.46:1 (26 tooth input gear and 1-1/8 in. intermediate shaft up to serial number 54-12506; 29 tooth input gear and 1-1/4 in. intermediate shaft after serial number 54-12506)
    * Transmission: Warner T-90 3-speed syncromesh, Ratios: 1st-3.339:1 (or 2.798:1), 2nd-1.551:1, 3rd- 1.00:1, Reverse-3.798:1

    * Frame: Heavy steel channel sides, 4.125 in. depth x 1.937 in. width, with 6 cross members (possibly five on early models). Length 122.656 in.
    * Fuel tank 10-1/2 gallons (38.75 ltr.)
    * Shock absorbers: Telescopic hydraulic. Monroe, 10.75 in. dia. double acting.
    * Springs: Semi-elliptical leaf type. Front: 36 1/4 in. x 1 3/4 in., 10 leaves, Rate 260 lb./in. Rear: 42 in. x 1 3/4 in., 9 leaves, Rate 190 lb./in. (Optional 11-leaf Heavy-Duty, Spring Rate: 225 lb./in.), (10 leaves, Rate 400 lb./in. on some M606 models).
    * Steering: Cam and lever, overall ratio 17.9 to 1 (Ross Model T-12 with 14-12:1 ratio on early models)
    * Tires: 6.00x16: 4 ply (7.00x15 optional, also 7.00x16 on military M6060 version)
    * Wheels: Kelsey-Hayes 4.50x16 inch, 5 stud
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  22. #17
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    1950 CJ-4



    This is the "missing link" between the CJ-3A/3B and the CJ-5. Only one unit was built in 1950, and it was one of the first prototype Jeeps to carry the new Willys "Hurricane" F-head engine. It combined the rear of a CJ-3A, the hood that would be seen on the MD model, and a unique grille and skirted fenders on an 81-inch wheelbase. Mechanically, it was pretty standard Jeep. Carrying the engineering code X-151, the rig was sold to a Willys employee in 1955 who worked it for 12 years. It then remained in storage for 25 years, before recently being sold again



    1950 CJ-4M



    The CJ-4M military prototype had the same front end design (never used on a production-model Jeep) as the CJ-4, with skirted fenders and a unique front clip. Blackout lamps replaced the marker lights, and headlamp guards as on the M-38 were also fitted. This pilot for the M-38A1 (model MD), probably built in 1950, has also been referred to as the M-38E1. There were also two CJ-4MA long-wheelbase prototypes with the same front end, which apparently preceded the M-170 ambulance
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  23. #18
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    1952-1971 M38A1



    The M38A1 Truck, Utility, 1/4 Ton, 4x4 was introduced in 1952 as the military improvement upon the M38 Jeep. The M38A1 was manufactured by Willys where it was known as the Model MD.

    The M38A1 featured rounded front fenders, a contoured hood, two-piece windshield, top-mounted windshield wipers, and a new "Hurricane" F-Head 4-cycle, 4-cylinder engine and Warner T90 transmission. It had a crew of one and could carry three passengers or 500 pounds payload.

    The M38A1 military jeep is the model that inspired the CJ-5 civilian jeep. It differed from the CJ-5 in that it had a stronger frame and suspension, reversed front spring shackles, standardized military instruments, and 24-volt electrical system. A provision for a machine gun mounting post was installed on the floor of the body tub.



    The M-38A1 closely resembled the CJ-5 civilian model jeep. It differed from the CJ-5 in that it had a stronger frame and suspension, reversed front spring shackles, standardized GI instruments, and 24-volt electrical system.

    The M38A1 was manufactured by Willys, and had an F-head, 4-cycle, 4-cylinder engine. It had a crew of one and could carry three passengers.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  24. #19
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    1952-1971 M83A1C



    M38A1C was the U.S. military designation for an MD modified to carry a rear-mounted 105mm or 106 mm recoilless rifle. Surplus examples would have been sold with the large weapon removed, but distinctive features that might remain include: a windshield with a center gap to allow the barrel of the rifle to rest horizontally, a cowl-mounted spare tire to provide clearance for the breech of the rifle and storage for shells accessible from the rear, and an M75A1 or M79 mount. There was a similar M38A1D which was used briefly in 1962 to carry the "Davy Crockett" tactical nuclear cannon.



    1953 BC Bobcat



    The Bobcat, or "Aero Jeep" as it was going to be officially called, was designed to be a 1500 pound Air Borne Combat Vehicle which would share as many parts as possible with the M-38 and M-38A1. The frame was apparently derived from the MB frame tooling to save costs, and the prototype weighed 1475 pounds, a little less than the experimental MBL (lightweight) of World War II. Like the MBL, the Bobcat did not go into production, and the concept of a small, lightweight combat vehicle was soon taken a step further in the aluminum-bodied M-422 Mighty Mite.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  25. #20
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    1955-1964 DJ-3A



    The two-wheel drive Willys DJ-3A "Dispatcher" has a lot in common with the CJ-3B, besides dating from the same era. It was an inexpensive Jeep whose design was largely an efficient, practical recycling of existing tooling and technology. And it is largely unknown today in North America; people are always trying to figure out what this Jeep is.

    The DJ made its debut in 1955, advertised both as a convertible recreational vehicle (a bit ahead of its time) and as America's Lowest Priced Delivery Vehicle (80K JPEG). Designed around the body style and L-134 engine of the former CJ-3A, the Dispatcher was the first Jeep since the early CJ-2A to have a steering column-mounted gearshift. Another distinguishing characteristic was the 4-bolt wheels

    In 1959 it was offered in the Surrey Gala version, but it had more success as a no-nonsense working vehicle.



    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  26. #21
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    1954-1983 CJ-5



    Nearly 30 years in production, the CJ-5 outlasted all the other Jeep utilities by a comfortable margin. All told, 603,303 were manufactured, making them the most plentiful CJ by a bunch. Many special editions existed for the CJ-5, including the 1972 Super Jeep and the 1977-83 Golden Eagle. The CJ-5 has been the basis for countless trail buildups, and probably logged more trail miles than any other Jeep.

    The CJ-5 was influenced by new corporate owner, Kaiser, and the Korean War M38A1 Jeep. It was intended to replace the CJ-3B, but that model continued in production. The CJ-5 repeated this pattern, continuing in production for 3 decades while three newer models appeared. A total of 603,303 CJ-5s were produced between 1954 and 1983.

    In 1965, Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225 cu in (3.7 L) V6 Dauntless and the CJ-5 and CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp (116 kW) supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine.

    A similar model, the Jeep DJ, was based on the CJ.

    The company was sold to American Motors in 1970, and the GM engine was retired after the 1971 model year. (GM's Buick division repurchased the engine tooling in the early 1970s which served as the powerplant in several GM vehicles.) AMC began using their inline six-cylinder engines, the 258 cu in (4.2 L) in 1972 and offering one V8 engine in the same tune as a base V8 muscle car, 304 CID.

    To accommodate the new I6 the fenders and hood were stretched 5 inches (127 mm) starting in 1972 and the wheelbase was stretched 3 inches (76 mm). Other minor drive train changes took place then as well.

    In 1976 the tub and frame were modified slightly from earlier versions. The windshield frame also changed meaning that tops from 1955-1975 will not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 and vice-versa.

    In the early 1980s, the CJ used a "Hurricane"-branded version of the GM Iron Duke I4.

    Several special CJ-5 models were produced:

    * 1961-1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
    * 1965 "Tuxedo Park Mark IV"
    * 1969 Camper
    * 1969 462
    * 1970 Renegade I
    * 1971 Renegade II
    * 1972-1983 Renegade Models — featuring a 304 CID V8, alloy wheels and a limited-slip differential
    * 1973 Super Jeep
    * 1977-1983 Golden Eagle

    Early Tuxedo Park models were trim lines, but the Tuxedo Park Mark IV was claimed as a separate model than the other CJ series (marked in 1965 as the "Universal"), with more differences than past models. The Tuxedo Park Mark IV was an attempt to crack the mass market; it was, according to Jeep, “a new idea in sports cars ... the sportiest, most FUNctional car on the automotive scene.” It added to the standard CJ chrome bumpers, hood latches, gas camp, mirror, and tail lamp trim. 81 and 101 inch wheelbases were available, with a variety of convertible top and seat colors, and front bucket seats in “pleated British calf grain vinyl.” Sales of this model, introduced in 1965, were low.

    http://www.earlycj5.com/tech/transfe...ex.php#fifteen

    http://www.earlycj5.com/tech/axle/

    http://www.earlycj5.com/tech/steering/index.php

    http://www.earlycj5.com/tech/engines/index.php

    The CJ-5 has the distinct honor of being a vehicle that was hard to kill off. It came in 1954 and left in 1984, equaling the longest production run of note (and before you send letters to us, know that those are Jeep's defined production dates, so we're sticking to 'em, but we'll grant you the '55 model year). The push was that the Universal Jeep was truly universal--stick it in agriculture, public service, transportation, communications, industry, and it would do the job--from street sweeping to "acting as a public address vehicle" because it was "the world's most useful vehicle." Hey, if it was good enough to rid the roads of trash and Bob's Big Boy wrappers, it was good enough for public consumption.

    The History

    The CJ-5 was a bit bigger/longer than the CJ-3B and was based on the round-fendered '51 M38A1. Willys gave its latest Jeep Universal model lots of newness at launch. Completely new! New ruggedness! New dependability! New comfort! New versatility! The CJ-5 was stepping it up in the brakes, suspension, seating, and even the glovebox (now with cover!) departments. A new instrument panel, larger windshield, and hand brake were selling points. The CJ-5 graduated from Willys to Kaiser and then to AMC, saw itself get longer as a CJ-6 version, and even inspired the FC model--not a bad bio. Because of the CJ-7's arrival in 1976, the CJ-6 was dumped in North America.

    The Model/The Body

    Among the improvements made to the CJ-5s were a fully boxed crossmember for rigidity and flanged, overlapped sheetmetal for strength. There was a new, optional, all-weather top and a new instrument panel, plus the engineering refinements we mentioned.

    In 1956 came the CJ-6, which had a 101-inch wheelbase and was 155 inches long; its curb weight was 2,336 pounds. For 1964, the CJ-5A and CJ-6A Tuxedo Park sports cars arrived, and in 1969, the brief 462 edition came out with skidplates and a swing-out spare-rubber carrier among the features. Come 1970, it was all about racing stripes, the Dauntless V-6, and the Renegade I; the Renegade II came the following year, and by 1972, it was simply Renegade. By 1974, it was a full-fledged model in the CJ lineup.

    Specs vary on the CJ--some claim the overall length at birth was 135-plus inches, while others say it was 138 and change. But what is clear is that in 1972, the wheelbase of the CJ-5 jumped to 84 inches and the length to 142.1 inches, while the CJ-6 increased to 104 and 162.1 inches, respectively. Most of the increase came from the stretching of the front section, hence the name "long-nose" CJ-5 for the later years.

    The Super Jeep had a brief life in 1973 and featured those racing stripes again, plus a chrome bumper. The Gold Eagle limited edition was an arrival in 1977, while the chromey Laredo joined the family in 1980.

    By 1983, CJ choices were simply the Renegade and a base model. And because we know you can't take the anticipation anymore, the infamous Levi's upholstery made its debut in 1975. And the DJ-5 and DJ-6 were two-wheel-drive versions of the CJs. Numerous seemingly collectable versions of the CJ-5 were also built. Did you know there was a Playboy CJ-5?

    The Engine

    Under the hood of the original CJ-5 and CJ-6 was a four-cylinder Hurricane F-head with an optional compression ratio of 7.4:1 for high altitude. It had rotating exhaust valves, cast-in-head intake manifolds,aluminum-alloy pistons, and with the intake valves in the head and the exhaust ones in the block in an effort to improve gas mileage. Then 1965 brought the 225ci Dauntless V-6, which made 160 gross horsepower at 4,200 rpm and 235 lb-ft of torque at 2,400 rpm. Wedge-shaped combustion chambers and a deep-skirt block were utilized for longevity. The V-6's bore-and-stroke was 3.75x3.40-inch, with 9.0:1 compression. For 1967, a two-barrel carb was used, gaining 5 hp and 10 lb-ft of torque.

    The optional two-barrel V-8 came in 1972--it was a 304 that made 150 net horsepower at 4,200 rpm and 245 lb-ft of torque at 2,500 rpm, with an 8.4:1 compression ratio and 3.75x3.44-inch bore-and-stroke. Additionally, the AMC one-barrel 232ci became the base engine (except in California), replacing the Hurricane. It made 100 hp at 3,600 rpm and 185 lb-ft of torque at 1,800 rpm and had an 8.0:1 compression ratio; it ran a 3.75x3.50-inch bore-and-stroke. An optional one-barrel 258ci V-6 was available (standard in Cali), with 110 hp at 3,500 rpm, 195 lb-ft of torque at 2,000 rpm, and a 8.0:1 compression ratio; the bore-and-stroke was 3.75x3.90-inch. Gone by 1979 was the 232, with the standard becoming the 258, now with a two-barrel carb. Getting the V-8 in California required power steering.

    A 151ci four-cylinder built by GM (their Iron Duke) debuted in 1980 (Jeep called it Hurricane again), which was a two-barrel with a 8.2:1 compression ratio and 4.00x3.00-inch bore-and-stroke. It made 82 hp at 4,000 rpm and 125 lb-ft of torque at 2,600 rpm until 1983, when there was only the 258.

    The Transmission

    Out of the box, there was a BorgWarner T-90 manual three-speed, followed by a BorgWarner T-14 for the V-6. An optional T-98 heavy-duty four-speed was available for the CJ-5 Hurricane starting in 1966; the three-speed with the V-6 was fully synchronized. The 232 and 258 could be hooked to a three- or four-speed, while the 304 was mated to a three-speed; again, only the CJ-5 could opt for the four-speed.

    A mandatory option (nothing like an automotive oxymoron) with the four-speed and the six-cylinder was a heavy-duty frame. In 1971, the T-14 three-speed was fully synchronized with the V-6; the four-cylinder had an optional T-98 four-speed. In 1972, the 232 and 258 used a BorgWarner T-14 three-speed and a T-18 four-speed; the V-8 ran with the T-15 three- and T-18 four-speed. In 1976, the Tremec T-150 three-speed was used, then the Tremec T-176 starting in 1980.

    The Transfer Case

    The Dana Spicer Model 18 was the first; the switch to Dana Model 20 started in 1972. By 1980, it was a Dana 300.

    The Suspension/Axles

    The CJs used semi-elliptic leaf springs both front and rear. The front axle was a full-floating Dana Spicer 25 until it was switched to a Dana Spicer 27 in 1966. The rear was a semi-floating 44, with available gearing of 4.27s until 1967; those were 3.54s. For 1972, the front axle was a full-floating Dana 30; the rear went to a semi-floating AMC 20 in 1976; 3.54s and 4.09s were available. A Powr-Lok diff was available starting in 1966, and Trac-Lok came in 1971, which was standard equipment on the Renegade.





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  27. #22
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    1954-1964 M170



    Although the M170 is often referred to as the "military version of the CJ-6," it would be more correct to call the CJ-6 a civvy M170. As with the M38A1, this new Jeep configuration was developed first for the military. Only about 6,500 four-cylinder M170's were produced over ten years, many outfitted as field ambulances. Others were used by the U.S. Marines as light six-man troop carriers. One unique feature is the mounting of the spare tire inside the body on the passenger side, to allow stretchers to extend over the tailgate where the spare would normally be on a military Jeep. As a result, the unusually large passenger side door opening is partially blocked, particularly when a jerry can is mounted in front of the spare. The driver's side door is the same as an M38A1.



    1955 Air Force Dispatcher



    This two-whel-drive version of the M38A1 was built for the U.S. Air Force under Willys Engineering Project 11323, and photographed in January 1955. It retained the 24-volt electrical system of the M38A1, and body features such as the recessed headlights and battery box, but most of the heavy-duty accessories were apparently removed. A rear-mounted gas tank was filled from the right side, and the full hardtop had sliding doors. Powered by the Hurricane F-head four, the "Dispatcher" was intended for non-combat maintenance and delivery work on military bases. It's not known how many of these may have been delivered to the Air Force or to other branches of the military.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  28. #23
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    1955-1975 CJ-6



    The only common complaint among early Jeep utility owners was the lack of room. This call was answered in the form of the CJ-6. Essentially a CJ-5 with 20 extra inches of wheelbase (101 inches total), the CJ-6 offered the storage space of a small pickup and the mobility of a Jeep. The demand was not great for the stretched CJ but they stayed in production from 1955 until the advent of the CJ-7 in 1976. They continued in production for export until 1981. Only 50,172 were manufactured, making them a fairly rare bird these days.

    The CJ-6 was simply a 20-inch (508 mm) longer-wheelbase (101 in) CJ-5. Introduced in 1955 as a 1956 model, the CJ-6 was never very popular in the United States. Most CJ6 models were sold to Sweden and South America. The U.S. Forest Service put a number CJ-6 Jeeps in to use. American sales ended in 1975. Just 50,172 had been made when the series went out of production completely in 1981. Just as in the CJ-5, the V6 and V8 engine choices appeared in 1965 and 1972. Former President Ronald Reagan owned a CJ-6 and used it on his California Ranch

    Drive Train

    Engine
    The original engine offered in the CJ-6 was the "Hurricane" F-Head 134 I4. The first optional engine offerred for the CJ-6 was the Perkins 192 I4 diesel followed by the "Dauntless" Buick 225 V6. When AMC purchased Jeep from Kaiser, they soon made the AMC 232, 258, and 304 available in the CJ-6.

    Transmission
    The T-90 3 speed was the standard transmission for the CJ-6 for many years. It's close brother, the T-86 3 speed was used with CJ-6s with the Dauntless V6. The T-14 replaced the T-90 and later the beefy T-98 was an optional 4 speed for the CJ-6 until 1971 when the T-18 became the optional 4 speed.

    Transfer Case
    The CJ-6 used the Dana 18 from '58 until '71. From '72-'75 they used the Dana 20.

    Front Axle
    The CJ-6 was first offered with the Dana 25 until 1965. The Dana 27 replaced it and was used until 1971. From 1972-1975, the Dana 30 was used in the CJ-6.

    Rear Axle
    The Dana 44 with two piece shafts was used in the CJ-6 until mid-1970. A Dana 44 with one piece shafts replaced it after that.





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  29. #24
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    1956-1965 FC Forward Control



    December 1956, the Willys Motors division of the Kaiser Corporation thought they saw the future of four-wheel-drive.

    FC-170 The Forward Control Jeep, introduced that month, was a symbol of the resurgence of the Willys division, now turning a healthy profit after several years in the red. This profit was largely the result of concentrating on building Jeeps rather than passenger cars, and successfully selling the Jeeps not just in North America, but around the world. (See "Pulling Willys Off the Rocks," Business Week, 15 December 1956, pp.111-112.) And now the company apparently felt the time was right for the next generation of four-wheel-drive vehicles.

    The Forward Control design was the latest vision from Brooks Stevens, who was probably the foremost industrial designer of the era, and had previously worked for Willys on the design of the Jeep station wagon and the 1948 Jeepster. Also in his portfolio were the 1939 Steam-O-Matic iron, the Miller High Life beer logo, the 1948 Harley-Davidson motorcycle, the Excalibur automobile, the Lawn-Boy lawnmower, and the 1956 Evinrude Lark Runabout motorboat.

    What was perhaps most impressive about Stevens' vision of the Jeep of the future, is that the first version was built on an almost off-the-shelf CJ-5 chassis and drive train, allowing it to be developed quickly and cheaply. (He used the same approach for his 1958 Oscar-Mayer Wienermobile.) By 1957 the axles of the short FC-150 were widened for better stability, and it was joined by the longer FC-170, but the changes were minimal.



    Willis produced utility vehicles that remained almost unchanged since 1947. As the marketplace grew more competitive in the 1950s, management developed a new range of modern cab and body trucks. Designer Brooks Stevens used styling cues from full-size cab-over-engine trucks. Engineering was based on existing CJ-5. Power came from the Hurricane F-head and L-head 4-cylinder engines.

    The Forward Control models were primarily marketed as work vehicles for corporate, municipal, military, as well as civilian use. Regular pickup box beds were standard, but customers were offered a large number of "Jeep approved" specialized bodies from outside suppliers. These ranged from simple flatbeds to complete tow trucks, dump trucks, and fire trucks.

    Proposals included a "Forward Control Commuter" design that could have been among the earliest minivan-type vehicles. Three operational concept cars were built by Reutter in Stuttgart, West Germany. Brooks Stevens was also involved in the transformation of this truck platform into a passenger vehicle

    The FC Jeeps were exhibited to Jeep dealers in a closed-circuit telecast on November 29, 1956, and were on display for the public at the December 1956 National Automobile Show in New York City. The FC-150 hit dealer showrooms on December 12, 1956. The initial response to the four-wheel drive FC Jeeps was favorable. Their best sales year came in 1957, when 9,738 were trucks sold. After the introduction of the FC-170 in 1957, FC-150 sales dropped to 1,546 units in 1959, before rebounding to 4,925 in 1960. Neither model became the big seller that Willys had hoped. Total production in nine years was just over 30,000 units. The FC line was discontinued in 1964

    Aside from Forward Control Jeeps being built for civilian use there were also four models manufactured for the military.

    * M676 - Basically a civilian FC with minor modifications
    * M677 - A four door crew cab with a canopy over the bed
    * M678 - An FC with a van body
    * M679 - An M678 refitted as an ambulance





    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

  30. #25
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    1961-1965 Fleetvan FJ-3/FJ-3A


    People have been known to suggest that turning the CJ-3A into the CJ-3B by enlarging the hood in order to fit the F-head Hurricane engine inside, resulted in a Jeep that was, shall we say, ugly. Apparently this opinion was not uncommon even among those who worked in the Jeep factory at the time.

    FJ and DJ But practicality was more important than looks to Jeep designers -- witness the Forward Control Jeep trucks. And perhaps the least attractive Jeeps of all were the ones which resulted when they beefed up the two-wheel drive DJ-3A Dispatcher with a Hurricane engine and some additional cargo space, to create the Fleetvan FJ-3 and the slightly longer FJ-3A.

    The Fleetvan was produced first as the FJ-3 right-hand-drive postal delivery vehicle. Somewhat shorter than the FJ-3A, the FJ-3 was only 135 inches long but was rated for the same 1000 pound payload. It's identifiable by its horizontal grille slots, as well as its overall length and RHD.
    "A parent's only as good as their dumbest kid. If one wins a Nobel Prize but the other gets robbed by a hooker, you failed."

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